BIBLIOGRAPHY: BEHAVIORAL HEALTH

 

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I. OVERVIEW– BEHAVIORAL HEALTH MANAGED CARE

II. CLINICAL ISSUES IN BEHAVIORAL HEALTH MANAGED CARE

III. FINANCIAL AND CAPITATION ISSUES IN MANAGED CARE BEHAVIORAL HEALTH

IV. LEGAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES IN BEHAVIORAL HEALTH MANAGED CARE

V. PUBLIC SECTOR MANAGED BEHAVIORAL HEALTH CARE

 

I. OVERVIEW– BEHAVIORAL HEALTH MANAGED CARE

Abrams H.S., “Harvard Community Health Plan’s Mental Health Redesign Project: A Managerial and Clinical Partnership,” Psychiatric Quarterly 64, No.1: 13-31, and Clinical Partnership,” Psychiatric Quarterly 64, No. 1:13-31, 1993.

Altman L. and Price, W., “Alcan Aluminum: Development of a Mental Health ‘Carve-Out,’ in Managed Mental Health Care, ed. W. Goldman and S. Feldman, New Directions for Mental Health Services Monograph 59, San Francisco: Jossey Bass, Fall, 55-65, 1993.

Bachrach L.L.: Managed care: I. delimiting the concept. Psychiatric Services 46:1229-1230, 1995.

Bartlett J., “The Emergence of Managed Care and Its Impact on Psychiatry,” in Inpatient Psychiatry in the 1990s, ed. J.P. Docherty, New Directions for Mental Health Services Monograph 63, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 25-34, Fall, 1994.

Burnamma, Escarce JJ: Equity in Managed Care for Mental Disorders, Health Affairs 18 (5): 22-31, 1999.

Christianson JB, Lurie N, Finch M, et al: Mainstreaming the Mentally Ill in HMOs. New Directions for Mental Health Services, No.43:19-28, 1989.

Crenshaw AB: Look Before Leaping in “Managed” Medicare, Washington Post, pp H1, H8, April 30, 1995.

Dickey B, Azeni H: Impact of Managed Care on Mental Health Services. Health Affairs 11(3):197-204, 1992.

Edmunds M., Frank R, Hogan M, et al (eds): Managing Managed Care: Quality Improvements in Behavioral Health. Washington, D.C., National Academy Press, 1997.

Eist HI: “Managed Care: How Does It Survive?” Psychiatric Times 6, March, 1995.

England MJ and Vaccaro VA, “New Systems to Manage Mental Health Care,” Health Affairs: 129-137, Winter, 1991.

Feldman S. “Behavioral Health Services, Carved Out and Managed,” American Journal of Managed Care 4: 59-76, 1998.

Feldman S., ed., Managed Mental Health Services, Springfield, Ill.: Charles Thomas, 1992.

Feldman S., “Strangers in the Night: Research and Managed Mental Health Care,” Health Affairs 18(5): 48-51, 1999.

Findlay S: “Managed Behavioral Healthcare in 1999: An Industry at a Crossroads,” Health Affairs 18(5): 116-124, 1999.

Frank RG, Goldman HH, and McGuire TG, “A Model Mental Health Benefit in Private Health Insurance,” Health Affairs, 98-117, Fall, 1992.

Frank RG and McGuire TG, “A Review of Studies of the Impact of Insurance on the Demand and Utilization of Specialty Mental Health Services,” Health Services Research 21, No.2:241-265, 1986.

Goldstein LS: “Genuine Managed Care in Psychiatry: A Proposed Practice Model,” General Hospital Psychiatry 11:271-277, 1989.

Gray BH (ed): “For-Profit Enterprise in Health Care,” Washington, D.C., National Academy Press, p.xvii, 1986.

Hassan MM: “Let’s End the Nonprofit Charade,” New England Journal of Medicine 334:1055-1057, 1996.

Hodgkin D: “The Impact of Private Utilization Management on Psychiatric Care: A Review of the Literature,” Journal of Mental Health Administration 19, no.2:143-157, 1992.

Iglehart JK: “Managed Care and Mental Health,” New England Journal of Medicine 334:131-135, 1996.

Landress HJ, Bernstein MA: “Managed Care 101: An Overview and Implications For Psychosocial Rehabilitation Services. Psychosocial Rehabilitation Journal 17:5-14, 1993.

Mechanic D, Mental Health and Social Policy: The Emergence of Managed Care, 4th ed., Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 47-55, 1999.

Mental Health Statistics Improvement Program, “Mental Health Component of a Health Plan Report Card: Progress Report.” Rockville, Md.: Center for Mental Health Services, May, 1994.

National Committee For Quality Assurance, Accreditation of Managed Behavioral Health Care Organizations; Washington, D.C., 2001.

Nudelman PM, Andrews LM: “The ‘Value Added’ of Not-For-Profit Health Plans.” New England Journal of Medicine 334:1057-1059, 1996.

Patterson DY: “Managed Care: An Approach to Rational Psychiatric Treatment, Hospital and Community Psychiatry 41:1092-1095, 1990

Patterson DY: Outpatient Services, the Managed Care View, in Allies and Adversaries: The Impact of Managed Care on Mental Health Services. Edited by Schreter RK, Sharfstein SS, Schreter CA. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Press, 1994.

President’s New Freedom Commission on Mental Health, Achieving the Promise: Transforming Mental Health Care in America, Final Report, Mental Health Commission, U.S. Government, July, 2003.

Ray C and Oss M: “Community Mental Health and Managed Care,” in Managed Mental Health Care, ed. W. Goldman and S. Feldman, New Directions for Mental Health Services Monograph 59, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 89-98, 1993.

Ross EC, Croze C: “Mental Health Service Delivery in the Age of Managed Care,” in Mental Health Policy and Practice Today, Edited by Atkins T, Callicutt JW. Thousand Oaks, Calif. Sage, 1997.

Schreter RK, Budman SH: Office-Based Services, in Managing Care, Not Dollars: The Continuum of Mental Health Services, edited by Schreter RK, Sharfstein SS, Schreter CA. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Press, 1997.

Schreter RK, Sharfstein SS, Schreter CA: Allies and Adversaries: The Impact of Managed Care on Mental Health Services. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Press, 1994.

Shadle M, Christianson JB: “The Impact of HMO Development on Mental Health and Chemical Dependency Services,” Hospital and Community Psychiatry 40:1145-1151, 1989.

Wainstock E, “How HMOs Can Effectively Manage Mental Health Services in the 1990s,” Administration and Policy in Mental Health 21, No.1: 15-26, 1993.

Wienam DA, Dorwart RA: “A Comparison of Public and Privatized Approaches to Managed Behavioral Health Care for Persons with Serious Mental Illness, Mental Health Services Research 1:159-170, 1999.

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II. CLINICAL ISSUES IN BEHAVIORAL HEALTH MANAGED CARE

 

APA, Practice Guidelines for the Treatment of Psychiatric Disorders Washington: APA, 2000.

Austad, CS, “Can Psychotherapy Be Conducted Effectively in Managed Settings?” in Controversies in Managed Mental Health Care, ed. JA Lazarus, American Psychiatric Press, 1996.

Budman, SH: Models of Brief Individual and Group Psychotherapy, in Managed Mental Health Care: Administrative and Clinical Issues. Edited by Feldman, JL, Fitzpatrick, RJ. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Press, 1992.

Callahan, JJ et al., “Mental Health/Substance Abuse Treatment in Managed Care: The Massachusetts Medicaid Experience,” Health Affairs, Fall 1995: 173-184, Fall, 1995.

Corcoran K. and Winslade W., “Eavesdropping on the 50-Minute Hour: Managed Mental Health Care and Confidentiality,” Behavioral Sciences and the Law 12, 1994.

Coulehan JL et al., “Treating Depressed Primary Care Patients Improves Their Physical, Mental and Social Functioning,” Archives of Internal Medicine 157, No. 10:1113-1120, 1997.

Crits-Christoph P., “The Efficacy of Brief Dynamic Psychotherapy: A Meta-Analysis,” American Journal of Psychiatry 149, No.2, 1992.

Cuffel Brian J., Held Martin, Goldman William, “Predictive Models and the Effectiveness of Strategies for Improving Outpatient Follow-Up Under Managed Care,” Psychiatric Services, Vol. 53 No. 11, November, 2002.

Dana RH: “Problems with Managed Mental Health Care for Multicultural Populations,” Psychological Reports 83:283-294, 1998.

Druss B, Schlesinger M, Thomas J, et al.: “Depressive Symptoms and Plan Switching Under Managed Care,” American Journal of Psychiatry 156:697-701, 1999.

Durham ML, “Healthcare’s Great Challenge: Providing Services for People with Severe Mental Illness in Managed Care,” Behavioral Sciences and the Law 12:331-349, 1994.

Durham ML, “Predictors of Outpatient Mental Health Utilization by Primary Care Patients in a Health Maintenance Organization,” American Journal of Psychiatry 151:908-914, 1994.

English JR, Sharfstein SS, Scherl D. et al.: “Diagnosis-Related Groups and General Hospital Psychiatry,” American Journal of Psychiatry 143:131-139, 1986.

Frank and Conti, “Mental Health Policy and Psychotropic Drugs,” and Scherer FM,
”The Pharmaceutical Industry,”
in Handbook of Health Economics, ed. Culyer and Newhouse, 1297-1336.

Glazer WM, “The Impact of Managed Care Systems on Relapse Prevention and Quality of Life for Patients with Schizophrenia,” European Neuropsychopharmacology 6:S235-S239, 1996. 

Goldman William, McCulloch Joyce, Cuffel Brian, “A Four Year Study of Enhancing Outpatient Psychotherapy in Managed Care,” Psychiatric Services V54, No.1, 2003.

Gorman Dennis M, “Alcohol and Drug Abuse: The Best of Practices, The Worst of Practices: The Marking of Science-Based Primary Prevention Programs,” Psychiatric Services V.54, No.8, 2003.

Hodgkin D., “The Impact of Private Utilization Management on Psychiatric Care: A Review of the Literature,” Journal of Mental Health Administration 19, No.2 1992:143-157, 1992.

Kane RL, Barlett J., Pothoff S: “Building An Empirically Based Outcomes Information System For Managed Mental Health Care,” Psychiatric Services 46:459-461 1995.

Katon W et al., “A Multifacted Intervention to Improve Treatment of Depression in Primary Care,” Archives of General Psychiatry 53, No. 10: 924-932, 1996.

Kuder AU, Kuntz MB: “Who Decides What Is Medically Necessary?” in Controversies in Managed Mental Health Care, Edited by Lazarus JA, Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Press, 1996.

Lewin R, Sharfstein SS: “Managed Care and the Discharge Dilemma,” Psychiatry 53:116-121, 1990.

Masi DA, Caplan R: Employee Assistance Programs, in Managed Mental Health Care: Administrative and Clinical Issues, Edited by Feldman JL, Fitzpatrick RJ, Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Press, 1992.

McFarland BH, “Health Maintenance Organizations and Persons with Severe Mental Illness,” Community Mental Health Journal 30: 221-242, 1994. 

Meredith LS et al., “Treating Depression in Staff-Model Versus Network Model Managed Care Organizations,” Journal of General Internal Medicine 14: 39-49, 1999.

Miller NE and Magruder KM, eds., Cost Effectiveness of Psychotherapy, New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Nerric EL: “Treatment of Major Depression Before And After Implementation of A Behavioral Health Carve-Out Plan,” Psychiatric Services 49:1563-1567, 1998.

Olsen DP, Rickles J, Travlik K: “A Treatment-Team Model of Managed Mental Health Care,” Psychiatric Services 46:252-256, 1995.

Quinlivan RT: “Treating High-Cost Users of Behavioral Health Services in a Health Maintenance Organization,” Psychiatric Services 51:159-161, 2000.

Revicki DA et al., “Cost Effectiveness of New Antidepressants Compared with Tricyclic Antidepressants in Managed Care Settings,” Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 58, No.2: 47-58, 1997.

Rogers W et al., “Outcomes for Adult Outpatients with Depression Under Prepaid or Fee-For-Service Financing,” Archives of General Psychiatry 50: 517-525, 1993.

Sabin James E. and Daniels Norman, “Managed Care: Improving Psychiatry Drug Benefit Management: Lessons From Massachusetts,” Psychiatric Services V.54, No.7, 2003.

Sharfstein SS, Boronow J, Dickerson FB, “Managed Care and Clinical Reality in Schizophrenia Treatment,” Health Affairs 18(5): 66-70, 1999.

Sturm R et al., “Utilization of Outpatient Mental Health Care Among Depressed Patients Under Prepaid or Fee-For-Service Financing,” Health Services Research 30:319-340, 1995. 

Thompson JW, Burns BJ, Goldman HH, et al., “Initial Level of Care and Clinical Status in a Managed Mental Health Program,” Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 43:599-603, 1992.

Tischler GL, “Utilization Management of Mental Health Services by Private Third Parties,” American Journal of Psychiatry 147:967-973, 1990.

Wells KB et al., “Detection of Depressive Disorder for Patients Receiving Prepaid or Fee-For-Service Care: Results From the Medical Outcomes Study,” Journal of the American Medical Association  262, No. 23:3298-3302, 1989.

Wells KB et al., “Impact of Disseminating Quality Improvement Programs for Depression in Managed Primary Care: A Randomized Controlled Trial,” Journal of the American Medical Association 283, No.2:212-220, 2000.

Wells KB et al., “Use of Outpatient Mental Health Services in HMO and Fee Service Plans: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial,” Health Services Research 21:453-474, 1986.

Wells KB, Manning WG, Jr. and Burciaga Valdez R, The Effects of a Prepaid Practice on Mental Health Outcomes of a General Population: Results from a Random Trial, Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND, December, 1989.

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III. FINANCIAL AND CAPITATION ISSUES IN MANAGED CARE BEHAVIORAL HEALTH

 

Babigian HM et al., “A Mental Health Capitation Experiment: Evaluating the Monro-Livingston Experience,” in Economics and Mental Health

Bennet MJ: “The Greening of the HMO: Implications for Prepaid Psychiatry, American Journal of Psychiatry 145:1544-1549, 1988.

Borus JF, Olendzke MD, Kessler L et al., “The ‘Offset Effect’ of Mental Health Treatment on Ambulatory Medical Care Utilization and Changes,” Archives of General Psychiatry 42:573-580, 1985.

Cole RE, Reed SK, Babigian HM, et al.,  ”A Mental Health Capitation Program: I. Patient Outcomes, Hospital and Community Psychiatry 45:1090-1096, 1994.

Cummings, NA: “Does Managed Mental Health Care Offset Costs Related to Medical Treatment?” in Controversies in Managed Mental Health Care, Edited by Lazarus JA, Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Press, 1996.

“Employers Cite Need for Comprehensive Reform to Reduce Costs, Look to Managed Competition for Relief,” Psychiatric News 5:8-9, March, 1993.

England MJ: “Capturing Mental Health Cost Offsets,” Health Affairs 18 (2): 91-93, 1999.

Frank RG and McGuire TG, “Economics and Mental Health,” in Handbook of Health Economics, Vol. 1B, ed. Culyer AJ and Newhouse JP, New York: Elsevier, 893-954, 2000.

Frank RG and McGuire TG, “Estimating Costs of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Coverage,” Health Affairs, 102-115, Fall, 1995.

Frank RG, McGuire TG and Newhouse JP, “Risk Contracts in Managed Mental Health Care,” Health Affairs, 50-64, Fall, 1995.

Frank R et al., “Some Economics of Mental Health ‘Carve-Outs’,” Archives of General Psychiatry 933-937, October, 1996.

Frank R et al., “The Economics of Behavioral Health Carve-Outs,” New Directions for Mental Health Services, 41-47, Summer, 1998.

Frank R, Salkever D and Sharfstein S., “A New Look at Rising Mental Health Insurance Costs,” Health Affairs, 116-123. Summer, 1991.

Goldman W, McCulloch J, and Sturm R., “Costs and Use of Mental Health Services Before and After Managed Care,” (Pacific Bell Study), Health Affairs :40-52, March/April, 1998.

Goldman W., McCulloch J., Cuffel B et al., ”More Evidence for the Insurability of Managed Behavioral Health Care,” Health Affairs 18(5):172-181, 1999.

Hamilton J and Galen M, “A Furor Over Mental Health,” Business Week, 66-69, 8 August, 1994.

Hargreaves WA: “A Capitation Model for Providing Mental Health Services in California, Hospital and Community Psychiatry 43:275-277, 1992.

Lazarus A: “Disputes Over Payment for Hospitalization Under Mental Health ‘Carve Out’ Programs,” Hospital and Community Psychiatry 45:115-116, 1994.

Lehman AF: “Capitation Payment and Mental Health Care: A Review of the Opportunities and Risks,” Hospital and Community Psychiatry 38:31-38, 1987.

Lurie N et al., “Does Capitation Affect the Health of the Chronically Mentally Ill? Results from a Randomized Trial,” Journal of the American Medical Association 267:3300-3304, 1992.

Ma CA, and McGuire, “Costs and Incentives in a Mental Health Carve Out,” Health Affairs:53-69, March/April, 1998.

Mark TL and Coffey RM, “What Drove Private Health Insurance Spending on Mental Health and Substance Abuse Care, 1992-1999?” Health Affairs, 65-172, Jan./Feb, 2003.

Marshall PE, “The Mental Health HMO:Capitation Funding for the Chronically Mentally Ill,” Community Mental Health Journal 28:111-121, 1992.

McGuire TG, “Costs and Incentives in a Behavioral Health Carve-Out,” Health Affairs:53-69, March/April, 1998.

Mechanic D, Aiken LH: “Capitation in Mental Health: Potentials and Cautions,” New Directions for Mental Health Services no. 43:5-18, 1989.

Mofidi A et al., “The Dynamics of a Capitated Payment System for Mental Health Care,” Mimeo, Department of Psychiatry, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland, Oregon, 1995.

NAMHC, Parity in Financing Mental Health Services: Managed Care Effects on Cost, Access, and Quality, Pub. No. 98-4322, Rockville, Md: National Institute of Mental Health, 1998.

Norquist GS and Wells KB, “How Do HMOs Reduce Outpatient Mental Health Care Costs?” American Journal of Psychiatry:96-10, January, 1991.

Pallak MS et al., “Managed Mental Health, Medicaid, and Medical Cost Offset,” in Managed Mental Health Care, ed. Goldman W and Feldman S, New Directions for Mental Health Services Monograph 59, San Francisco:Jossey-Bass, 27-40, 1993.

Reed SK et al., “A Mental Health Capitation Program II. Cost-Benefit Analysis,” Hospital and Community Psychiatry 45, No. 11:1097-1103, 1994.

Reed SK, Hennessy KD, Brown SW et al., “Capitation from a Provider’s Perspective,” Hospital and Community Psychiatry 43:1173-1175, 1992.

Reed S, Hennessy K, Mitchell O, et al., “ The Effects of a Mental Health Capitation Program: II. Cost-Benefit Analysis, Hospital and Community Psychiatry 45:1097-1103.

Schlesinger M, “On the Limits of Expanding Health Care Reform: Chronic Care in Prepaid Settings,” Millbank Quarterly 64:189-215, 1986.

Schlesinger M, Striking a Balance: Capitation, the Mentally Ill, and Public Policy, in Integrating Mental Health Services Through Capitation. Edited by Mechanic D, Aiken L, San Francisco:Jossey-Bass, 1989.

Sederer LI, Eisen SV, Dill D et al., “Case-Based Reimbursement for Psychiatric Hospital Care,” Hospital and Community Psychiatry 43:1120-1126, 1992.

Spencer CS, Frank RG, McGuire TG: “How Should the Profit Motive Be Used in Managed Care?” in Controversies in Managed Mental Health Care, Edited by Lazarus A., Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Press, 1996.

Sturm R, “Costs and Use of Mental Health Services Before and After Managed Care,” Health Affairs:40-52, Mar/Apr, 1998.

Sturm R, “How Expensive is Unlimited Mental Health Care Coverage under Managed Care?” Journal of the American Medical Association 278, No. 18:1533-1537, 1997.

Sturm R and Wells KB, “How Can Care for Depression Become More Cost-Effective?” Journal of the American Medical Association 273, No.1:51-58, 1995

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IV. LEGAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES IN BEHAVIORAL HEALTH MANAGED CARE

 

Appelbaum PS: “Legal Liability and Managed Care,” American Psychologist 48:251-257, 1993.

Backlar P, “Managed Mental Health Care: Conflicts of Interest in the Provider/Client Relationship,” Community Mental Health Journal 32, No.2, 1996.

Borenstein DB: “Managed Care: A Means of Rationing Psychiatric Treatment,” Hospital and Community Psychiatry 41:1095-1098, 1990.

Boyle Philip J and Callahan Daniel (ed.) What Price Mental Health? The Ethics and Politics of Setting Priorities, Washington: Georgetown University Press, 1995.

Boyle PJ and Callahan D, “Managed Care in Mental Health: The Ethical Issues,” Health Affairs:7-22, Fall, 1995.

Brent NJ: “Managed Care: Legal and Clinical Implications,” Home Healthcare Nurse 9(3):8-10, 1991.

Dorwart RA, “Managed Mental Health Care: Myths and Realities in the 1990s,” Hospital and Community Psychiatry 41:1087-1091, 1990.

Geraty RD, Hendren RI, Flaa C, “Ethical Perspectives on Managed Care As It Relates to Child and Adolescent Psychiatry,” Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 31:398-402, 1992.

Jellinek MS, Nurcombe B: “Two Wrongs Don’t Make A Right: Managed Care, Mental Health, and the Marketplace,” JAMA 270:1737-1739, 1993.

Kassirer JP: “Managed Care and the Morality of the Marketplace,” New England Journal of Medicine 333:50-52, 1995.

Malloy M, Mental Illness and Managed Care: A Primer for Families and Consumers, Arlington, VA, National Alliance for the Mentally Ill, 1995.

Mechanic D., “Managed Care and the Imperative for a New Professional Ethic,” Health Affairs :100-111, Sep/Oct, 2000.

Sabin J, “Caring About Patients and Caring About Money: The American Psychiatric Association Code of Ethics Meets Managed Care,” Behavioral Sciences and the Law 12:317-330, 1994.

Sabin JE: “A Credo for Ethical Managed Care in Mental Health Practice,” Hospital and Community Psychiatry 45:859-860, 869, 1994. 

Sabin James E. and Daniels Norman, “Managed Care: Strengthening the Consumer Voice in Managed Care: The Georgia Peer-Specialist Program,” Psychiatric Services V 54, No.4, 2003.

Sharfstein SS and Stoline AM, “Reform Issues for Insuring Mental Health Care,” Health Affairs:84-97, Fall, 1992.

Wells SM: “Exploring the Promises and Pitfalls of Managed Care Access, pp.1, 3-5, March, 1995.

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V. PUBLIC SECTOR MANAGED BEHAVIORAL HEALTH CARE

 

Austin MJ and Blum SR, eds. “Monitoring Mental Health Service Contracts: Six States Experience,” Psychiatric Services 47:837-841, 1996.

Bachman SS, “Monitoring Mental Health Services Contracts: Six States Experience,” Psychiatric Services 47:837-841, 1996.

Ballit MH, Burgess LL: “Competing Interests: Public Sector Managed Behavioral Health Care,” Health Affairs 18(5) 112-115, 1999.

Chang CH et al., “Tennessee’s Failed Managed Care Program for Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services,” Journal of the American Medical Association, no. II: 864-86, 1998.

Cuffel BJ, Snowden L, Masland M, et al., “Managed Care in the Public Mental Health System,” Community Mental Health Journal 132:109-124, 1996.

Dickey B et al., “Managing the Care of Schizophrenia: Lessons from a Four-Year Massachusetts Medicaid Study,” Archives of General Psychiatry 53, No. 10:945-952, 1996.

Freund DA and Hurley RD, “Medicaid Managed Care: Contribution to Issues of Health Reform,” Annual Reviews of Public Health 16:473-495, 1995.

Hadley TR, Schinnar A, Roathbard A, “Managed Mental Health in the Public Sector,” in Managed Mental Health Services,” Edited by Feldman S., Springfield, Ill, Thomas, 1992.

Hanson K and Huskamp H, "Behavioral Health Services Under Medicaid Managed Care: The Uncertain Implications of State Variation,” Psychiatric Services, No. 4:447-450, 2001.

Hogan MF, “Public Sector Mental Health Care: New Challenges,” Health Affairs 18(5), 106-111, 1999.

Hoge M et al. “Defining Managed Care in Public Sector Psychiatry,” Hospital and Community Psychiatry 45, No. 11:1085-1089, November, 1994.

Hurley RE and Freund DA, “A Topology of Medicaid Managed Care,” Medical Care 26, No. 8:764-773, 1988 

Minkoff K, “The Future of Community Psychiatry – Public-Sector Managed Care,” Community Psychiatrist 7:1-27, 1993.

Mowbray Carol T, Grazierkyle C, Holter Mark, “Managed Behavioral Healthcare in the Public Sector: Will It Become the Third Shame of the States?” Psychiatric Services, Vol. 53, No.2, Feb., 2002.

Rosenbaum S., “A Look Inside Medicaid Managed Care,” Health Affairs, 266-27, July/August, 1997.

Sederer LI, St Clair RL: “Managed Health Care and the Massachusetts Experience,” American Journal of Psychiatry 146:1142-1148, 1989.Health

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